Model railroading (US) or Railway modelling (UK, Australia and Canada) is a hobby in which rail transport systems are modelled at a reduced scale, or ratio. The scale models include rail vehicles (locomotives, rolling stock, streetcars, etc.), tracks, signalling, and scenery (roads, buildings, vehicles, model figures, lights, and natural features such as streams, hills and canyons.)

The earliest forms of model railways are the 'carpet railways' which first appeared in the 1840s. "Electric trains" first appeared around the turn of the 20th century. But these early toys were crude likenesses of real trains. Model trains today are generally far more realistic than the toy trains of yesteryear. Today modellers all over the world create sophisticated model railway / railroad layouts, often recreating real locations and periods in history, to show off their "prototypically accurate" models.
 
Microscale Decals Burlington Northern 48' Contain 87-559 HO Scale

Microscale Decals Burlington Northern 48' Contain 87-559 HO Scale

$6.00
Microscale Decals #87-282 Assorted Intermodal 40' Trailer N&W & Container Matson

Microscale Decals #87-282 Assorted Intermodal 40' Trailer N&W & Container Matson

$8.00
Microscale Decals VMW Enterprises Leasing Locomotive All Gray Scheme MC-4038 (HO

Microscale Decals VMW Enterprises Leasing Locomotive All Gray Scheme MC-4038 (HO

$5.00
Microscale Decals Stock #91135  Striping 4" and 6" Widths Red

Microscale Decals Stock #91135 Striping 4" and 6" Widths Red

$8.00
Microscale Decals Stock #87-963 Chicago & North Western Hood Disel & Switcher

Microscale Decals Stock #87-963 Chicago & North Western Hood Disel & Switcher

$8.00
Microscale Decals Stock #MC 5020 Misc Tank Car Data 17.6 K, 17.36 K , 13K  White

Microscale Decals Stock #MC 5020 Misc Tank Car Data 17.6 K, 17.36 K , 13K White

$5.00
Microscale Decals #87-361 Rock Island (CRI&P) Cab Diesels Black & Red and Maroon

Microscale Decals #87-361 Rock Island (CRI&P) Cab Diesels Black & Red and Maroon

$8.00
Microscale Decals Stock #87-843 Northern Pacific 40' Boxcars (1942-1970)

Microscale Decals Stock #87-843 Northern Pacific 40' Boxcars (1942-1970)

$8.00
Microscale Decals Burlington Northern Freight 87-649

Microscale Decals Burlington Northern Freight 87-649

$6.00
Walthers Stock # 920-9352 Santa Fe San Francisco Chief Pine Series 10-6 Deluxe

Walthers Stock # 920-9352 Santa Fe San Francisco Chief Pine Series 10-6 Deluxe

$120.00
Micro-Trains 47230 ATSF Santa Fe 40' Double Sheathed Wood Reefer Chief 26243

Micro-Trains 47230 ATSF Santa Fe 40' Double Sheathed Wood Reefer Chief 26243

$17.99
O On3 On30 1 48 WISEMAN MODEL SERVICES DETAIL PARTS #O109 GANDYDANCER PINCH BARS

O On3 On30 1 48 WISEMAN MODEL SERVICES DETAIL PARTS #O109 GANDYDANCER PINCH BARS

$3.00
RARE VINTAGE ATHEARN HO TRAIN OVERLAND MILWAUKEE ROAD#1 ORIGINAL Paperwork Box

RARE VINTAGE ATHEARN HO TRAIN OVERLAND MILWAUKEE ROAD#1 ORIGINAL Paperwork Box

$215.00
$650.00
Mr. Rodger's House,  Model Power Scale O,  #6352 with Box.

Mr. Rodger's House, Model Power Scale O, #6352 with Box.

$19.99
O On3 On30 1 48 WISEMAN MODEL SERVICES DETAIL PARTS #O110 LARGE C-CLAMPS

O On3 On30 1 48 WISEMAN MODEL SERVICES DETAIL PARTS #O110 LARGE C-CLAMPS

$4.00
FVM 8012-4  Sabine River & Northern FMC 5347 SD Box Car RD #5299  NIB

FVM 8012-4 Sabine River & Northern FMC 5347 SD Box Car RD #5299 NIB

$5.99
16 HO Scale Kadee Coupler springs

16 HO Scale Kadee Coupler springs

$1.89
HO Preiser 14085 (6) Female Commuters on Way to Train FIGURES

HO Preiser 14085 (6) Female Commuters on Way to Train FIGURES

$10.95
O On3 On30 1 48 WISEMAN MODEL SERVICES DETAIL PARTS #O111 SMALL TOOL ASSORTMENT

O On3 On30 1 48 WISEMAN MODEL SERVICES DETAIL PARTS #O111 SMALL TOOL ASSORTMENT

$3.00
VINTAGE LIONEL PREWAR (PRE-WAR) LIONEL FLATBED LOGGING CAR (GREY)

VINTAGE LIONEL PREWAR (PRE-WAR) LIONEL FLATBED LOGGING CAR (GREY)

$20.00
Scales and gauges
 

The size of the engines depends on the scale being used and can vary from around 700 mm (28") tall for the largest ridable live steam scales such as 1:8, down to matchbox size for the smallest ones in Z-scale (1:220). A typical HO (1:87) engine is around 50 mm (2") tall, and 100 mm to 300 mm (4" to 12") in length. The six most popular scales used are: G scale, Gauge 1, O scale, H0 scale (in Britain, the similarly sized 00 is used), TT scale, and N scale (1:160), although there is growing interest in Z scale. H0 scale is the single most popular scale of model railroad. Popular narrow-gauge scales include HOn3 Scale and Nn3, which are the same scale as HO and N, except with a narrower spacing between the tracks (in these examples, a scale three feet instead of the 4'8.5" standard gauge).

The largest common scale is 1:8, with 1:4 sometimes used for park rides. G scale (Garden, 1:24 scale) is most popular for back yard modelling. It is easier to fit a G scale model into a garden landscape and still keep the scenery proportional to the size of the trains running through. [Gauge 1] and Gauge 3 are also popular for garden layouts. 0, H0 scale, and N scale are more often used indoors. Lionel trains in 0 scale (1:48 scale) are popular children's toys.

The words scale and gauge seem at first to be used interchangeably in model railways, but their meanings are different. Scale is the model's measurement as a proportion to the original, while gauge is the measurement between the two running rails of the track.

At first, model railways were not to scale. Manufacturers and hobbyists soon arrived at de facto standards for interchangeability, such as gauge, but trains were only a rough approximation to the real thing. See Normen Europäischer Modelleisenbahnen (NEM) and NMRA. Official scales for the various gauges were soon drawn up, but the scales were not at first at all rigidly followed, and were not necessarily correctly proportioned for the rail gauge chosen. O (zero) gauge trains, for instance, operate on track that is too widely spaced in the United States as the scale is accepted as 1:48 where as in Britain 0 gauge use a scale ratio of 43.5:1 or 7 mm/1 foot and the gauge is much near to correct. The British 00 standards operate on track that is significantly too narrow. (The 4 mm/1 foot scale on a 16.5 mm gauge corresponds to a track gauge of 4' 1 1/2", 7 inches under-sized). 16.5 mm gauge corresponds to 4'8.5" standard gauge when modelling in H0 (half zero) 3.5 mm/1 foot or 1:87. Most of the commercial scales also have standards that include wheel flanges that are too deep, wheel treads that are too wide, and rail tracks that are too large.

Later on, groups of modellers became dissatisfied with these inaccuracies, and developed finescale standards in which everything is correctly scaled. These are used by dedicated modellers but have not generally spread to mass-produced equipment in part because the inaccuracies and overscale properties of the commercial scales are necessary to ensure reliable operation in the hands of consumers as well as experts, and also to allow for shortcuts necessary for cost control. These finescale standards include the UK's P4, and the even finer S4, which use a set of track dimensions scaled from the prototype. This 4 mm:1ft modelling uses wheels 2 mm (or less) wide running on track with a gauge of 18.83 mm. Check-rail and wing-rail clearances are similarly accurate.

A compromise of P4 and 00 is 'EM' which uses a gauge of 18.2 mm with much more generous tolerances than P4 for check clearances. It gives a much better appearances than 00 though pointwork is not as close to reality as P4. It suits many people where time and improved appearance are both important.
 

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Thursday , July 31st , 2014
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