Model railroading (US) or Railway modelling (UK, Australia and Canada) is a hobby in which rail transport systems are modelled at a reduced scale, or ratio. The scale models include rail vehicles (locomotives, rolling stock, streetcars, etc.), tracks, signalling, and scenery (roads, buildings, vehicles, model figures, lights, and natural features such as streams, hills and canyons.)

The earliest forms of model railways are the 'carpet railways' which first appeared in the 1840s. "Electric trains" first appeared around the turn of the 20th century. But these early toys were crude likenesses of real trains. Model trains today are generally far more realistic than the toy trains of yesteryear. Today modellers all over the world create sophisticated model railway / railroad layouts, often recreating real locations and periods in history, to show off their "prototypically accurate" models.
 
50PCS Clear 3mm 1.5V 100mA Miniature Pre-Wired Grain of Wheat Bulbs Warm White

50PCS Clear 3mm 1.5V 100mA Miniature Pre-Wired Grain of Wheat Bulbs Warm White

$12.99
Lionel 6-19411 Nickel Plate Road TOFC Flat car with SEARS trailer 1992 FFlags#6

Lionel 6-19411 Nickel Plate Road TOFC Flat car with SEARS trailer 1992 FFlags#6

$49.95
Walthers Trainline WV WSOR Caboose

Walthers Trainline WV WSOR Caboose

$24.74
50PCS Clear 3mm 2.0V 70mA Miniature Pre-Wired Grain of Wheat Bulbs Warm White

50PCS Clear 3mm 2.0V 70mA Miniature Pre-Wired Grain of Wheat Bulbs Warm White

$12.99
DRG baggage coach WITH LIGHTS    by MINITRIX       N Gauge   (4)

DRG baggage coach WITH LIGHTS by MINITRIX N Gauge (4)

$10.46
50PCS Clear 3mm 3.5V 70mA Miniature Pre-Wired Grain of Wheat Bulbs Warm White

50PCS Clear 3mm 3.5V 70mA Miniature Pre-Wired Grain of Wheat Bulbs Warm White

$12.99
Kato 22-202-8 UNITRACK Sound Card C57  C59 (N scale)

Kato 22-202-8 UNITRACK Sound Card C57 C59 (N scale)

$20.00
20pcs Scenery Landscape Model Trees Layout 1.18 Inch - 3.15 Inch - Light Moss===

20pcs Scenery Landscape Model Trees Layout 1.18 Inch - 3.15 Inch - Light Moss===

$13.00
Walthers SceneMaster RS Undec Container,  20'

Walthers SceneMaster RS Undec Container, 20'

$12.77
24pcs Painted Model Train Scenery People Figures Scale HO (1 to 87) NEW===

24pcs Painted Model Train Scenery People Figures Scale HO (1 to 87) NEW===

$16.00
 Tomytec (Komono 038) Fence & Stone Pavement 1 150 N scale

Tomytec (Komono 038) Fence & Stone Pavement 1 150 N scale

$11.69
50PCS Clear 4mm 12V 70mA Miniature Pre-Wired Grain of Wheat Bulbs Warm White New

50PCS Clear 4mm 12V 70mA Miniature Pre-Wired Grain of Wheat Bulbs Warm White New

$12.99
Elm Tree 4.72 Inch Park Scenery Landscape Model Excellent Detail Scale 1 75===

Elm Tree 4.72 Inch Park Scenery Landscape Model Excellent Detail Scale 1 75===

$7.54
Bachmann HO New York Central 4-8-4 DCC-equipped Niagara locomotive with tender

Bachmann HO New York Central 4-8-4 DCC-equipped Niagara locomotive with tender

$170.00
$225.00
11 Bachmann HO Union Pacific cabooses in excellent condition

11 Bachmann HO Union Pacific cabooses in excellent condition

$65.00
$85.00
10 Bachmann HO Erie Lackawanna box cars

10 Bachmann HO Erie Lackawanna box cars

$65.00
$85.00
Bachmann HO Burlington CB&Q 4-8-4 locomotive with tender in excellent condition

Bachmann HO Burlington CB&Q 4-8-4 locomotive with tender in excellent condition

$90.00
$120.00
Three Bachmann HO Burlington FT powered engines

Three Bachmann HO Burlington FT powered engines

$110.00
$145.00
Two IHC HO E8 Union Pacific engines in outstanding condition

Two IHC HO E8 Union Pacific engines in outstanding condition

$70.00
$95.00
14 HO IHC Reading corrugated side passenger cars plus two bonus cars

14 HO IHC Reading corrugated side passenger cars plus two bonus cars

$170.00
$225.00
Scales and gauges
 

The size of the engines depends on the scale being used and can vary from around 700 mm (28") tall for the largest ridable live steam scales such as 1:8, down to matchbox size for the smallest ones in Z-scale (1:220). A typical HO (1:87) engine is around 50 mm (2") tall, and 100 mm to 300 mm (4" to 12") in length. The six most popular scales used are: G scale, Gauge 1, O scale, H0 scale (in Britain, the similarly sized 00 is used), TT scale, and N scale (1:160), although there is growing interest in Z scale. H0 scale is the single most popular scale of model railroad. Popular narrow-gauge scales include HOn3 Scale and Nn3, which are the same scale as HO and N, except with a narrower spacing between the tracks (in these examples, a scale three feet instead of the 4'8.5" standard gauge).

The largest common scale is 1:8, with 1:4 sometimes used for park rides. G scale (Garden, 1:24 scale) is most popular for back yard modelling. It is easier to fit a G scale model into a garden landscape and still keep the scenery proportional to the size of the trains running through. [Gauge 1] and Gauge 3 are also popular for garden layouts. 0, H0 scale, and N scale are more often used indoors. Lionel trains in 0 scale (1:48 scale) are popular children's toys.

The words scale and gauge seem at first to be used interchangeably in model railways, but their meanings are different. Scale is the model's measurement as a proportion to the original, while gauge is the measurement between the two running rails of the track.

At first, model railways were not to scale. Manufacturers and hobbyists soon arrived at de facto standards for interchangeability, such as gauge, but trains were only a rough approximation to the real thing. See Normen Europäischer Modelleisenbahnen (NEM) and NMRA. Official scales for the various gauges were soon drawn up, but the scales were not at first at all rigidly followed, and were not necessarily correctly proportioned for the rail gauge chosen. O (zero) gauge trains, for instance, operate on track that is too widely spaced in the United States as the scale is accepted as 1:48 where as in Britain 0 gauge use a scale ratio of 43.5:1 or 7 mm/1 foot and the gauge is much near to correct. The British 00 standards operate on track that is significantly too narrow. (The 4 mm/1 foot scale on a 16.5 mm gauge corresponds to a track gauge of 4' 1 1/2", 7 inches under-sized). 16.5 mm gauge corresponds to 4'8.5" standard gauge when modelling in H0 (half zero) 3.5 mm/1 foot or 1:87. Most of the commercial scales also have standards that include wheel flanges that are too deep, wheel treads that are too wide, and rail tracks that are too large.

Later on, groups of modellers became dissatisfied with these inaccuracies, and developed finescale standards in which everything is correctly scaled. These are used by dedicated modellers but have not generally spread to mass-produced equipment in part because the inaccuracies and overscale properties of the commercial scales are necessary to ensure reliable operation in the hands of consumers as well as experts, and also to allow for shortcuts necessary for cost control. These finescale standards include the UK's P4, and the even finer S4, which use a set of track dimensions scaled from the prototype. This 4 mm:1ft modelling uses wheels 2 mm (or less) wide running on track with a gauge of 18.83 mm. Check-rail and wing-rail clearances are similarly accurate.

A compromise of P4 and 00 is 'EM' which uses a gauge of 18.2 mm with much more generous tolerances than P4 for check clearances. It gives a much better appearances than 00 though pointwork is not as close to reality as P4. It suits many people where time and improved appearance are both important.
 

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Wednesday , August 31st , 2016
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